Open curricula and collaborative training

I've had real in-person or virtual classes with an instructor and exams and all, which I've absolutely had to do. There's been more of the informal like teaching myself stuff too. It's a combination, I don't think you can get by on one or the other. There's certain things that are very difficult to learn on your own. Obviously, when the cloud stuff came on - nobody knew how to do that day one, right? You had to go learn on your own.  

When I first started out, there was certification exam, not that they don't exist now... But back then, you know, you'd buy these five books and each book was one exam.  

When I started this, there was only in-person classes. There were no remote classes. last three of these classes I took now are all remote, now. You log into login zooms session, instructors over there and does their stuff and you participate in that way. And then you go take exams.  

There were a lot of people who just study the books and memorize them, and then just go take the exam and pass had no practical experience on computers. That's changed, that is very difficult to accomplish now. To just literally study, take an exam and just be able to pass it and without any real function. A lot of that is now because again, because technology allows interactive exams where you instead of just oh ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or ‘ABC,true,false’. You have to go into a simulated environment and do things right and that's become a big component.